Thursday, August 30, 2012

Mysore Tiger - Tippu Sulthan (RA)

( By : Allama Mohammed Iqbal Rahmatullah Allaih )

Place / Town / City : Srirangapatnam
( 6kms from Mysore and 120 kms from Bangalore )
District : Mandya District
State : Karnataka.

Famous Portrait of Hazrat Tippu Sultan Shaheed Rahmatullahi Allaih (1750-1799)
Childhood and Parentage :-
Hazrat Tipu Sultan Shaheed (RA) was the son of Hazrat Haider Ali (RA) and Hazrata Fathima Begum (RA) born on 20th November 1750 A.D. at Devanahalli in Bangalore District. Hazrat Haider Ali (RA) named his son after a great Sufi saint namely Tippu Mastaan Aulia Rahmatullahi Allaih whose dargah shareef is Arcot.
1) Shahi Gumbaz Where The Mazar-e-Shareef Of Hazrat Hyder Ali (RA), Hazratha Fathima Begum ( RA) ( Mother Of Hazrat Tippu Sultan (RA) And Mazar E Shareef Of Hazrath Tippu Sultan (Ra) And His Wife Mazar Outsie The Gumbaz In Srirangapatna.
2) Shahi Gumbaz Dargah In Kolar, Karnataka.
3) Dargah Shareef Of Hazrath Aqheel Shah Baghdadi (Ra), Great Auliya Peer-O-Murshid Of Hazrat Hyder Ali (RA) In Channapatna, Karnataka.
4) Dargah Shareef Of Hazrat Attaulla Shah Baba Shuttari (Ra), Peer-O-Murshid Of Hazrat Hyder Ali (RA) in Bangalore.
5) Masjid-e-Aala (Jamia Masjid ) In Srirangapatna.
6) Daria Daulat Bagh in Srirangapatna
7) Forts And Palaces In Bangalore.
8) Birth Place , Forts In Devanahalli, in Bangalore.
9) Lalbagh Botanical Garden 4 Kms From Mg Road, Bangalore And Sringapatna.
10) Place Of Martyrdom In Srirangapatna Where Sacred Body of Hazrath Tippu Sultan Shaheed Rahmatullahi Allaih Was found.
11) Famous Wooden Masjid In Mangalore Build By Hazrat Tippu Sultan Shaheed (RA)

At the age of fifteen he used to accompany his father Hazrat Hyder Ali (RA), Ruler of Mysore State, to different military campaigns. He was a devout Muslim. He had a very inquisitive mind and fascination for learning. His personal library was consisted of more than two thousand books in different languages. Tippu was a man of simple habits, eating common food and leading pious life. He had a very dignified personality and impressed the people who came in contact with him. He was an extremely active man and worked from dawn to midnight for the welfare of his subjects. He himself drafted all his correspondence. He took over the kingdom after his father's death in 1782 A.D.
He could foresee the (British) East India Company's design to get entrenched on Indian soil, and took a vow to foil it. For this purpose he negotiated with the French and sheltered the Frenchmen who preached the French revolutionary doctrines to the public. A "Jacobean Club" was established in Tippu's capital Srirangapatna, and the French tricolor was hoisted. He also sought assistance from the Amir of Afghanistan and the Sultan of Turkey. He had already defeated the British at Wandiwash in 1783. The British were very scared of Tippu's growing strength, and they formed an alliance with the Nizam of Hyderabad State and Marathas of Maharashtra State. The French deserted Tippu after signing of the "VersaillesTreaty" in Europe in 1783 when the American War of Independence ended.
As long as the British fought alone, Tippu always defeated them. But he was no match for their diplomacy, conspiracy and intrigue. Thus he was defeated in his Capital of Srirangapattana, and forced to sign a humiliating treaty on March 22nd, 1792. As a result he had to concede half of his kingdom and pay an indemnity of thirty three million Rupees to the English and their allies. Frequent wars had drained his treasury, and hence he had no hard cash to pay this huge amount. He was compelled to pledge two of his sons to the conquerors. Governor General Conrnwallis took away these two youngsters to his headquarters in Calcutta in Bengal. However, they could not suppress Tippu's spirits for long, and he rebuilt his war machine in shortest possible time. He built a fine army and modernized his administration on the European model. He was an able and fearless military strategist.
He built a chain of excellent roads, and constructed tanks and dams to promote agriculture. He introduced the new industries, promoted trades and commerce, established factories in Cutch, Masquat, and Jedda, and sent commercial missions to Oman, Persia and Turkey. He invited foreign know-how to build factories to produce glass, mirrors and ship-building. He aimed at making his kingdom the most prosperous state of India. Hence he was also interested in latest scientific research all over the world. He introduced sericulture on a large scale, and mulberry cultivation was started at twenty one centers. He encouraged the textile industry by banning the export of cotton. The weavers from Tamilnadu were invited and settled in his kingdom. Growing of sugarcane and producing of sugar and candy were encouraged in Channapatna, Devanhalli and Chikkaballapur. High quality tempered wire required for the string instruments was produced in Channapatna. The livestock development got special attention. Tippu prohibited the production and distribution of liquor and other intoxicants in his state of Mysore.
Hazrat Tippu Sultan (RA) adopted the tiger as his emblem. His throne was shaped like a tiger, carrying the head of a life-size tiger in solid gold (see also the boxed toy above ). He was an enlightened ruler who treated his non-Muslim subjects generously. He appointed them to different positions of authority, and gave them complete freedom of worship. He conferred liberal grants to Sringeri, Srirangapattana, and Mangalore temples. He gave funds for the consecration of idols and presented them with gold and silver articles. He also encouraged arts like music and dance and learning in general.

Hazrat Tippu Sultan, the eldest son of Hazrat Haider Ali, was born on December 10, 1750 at Devanhalli. Right from his early years he was trained in the art of warfare and at the age of 15 he used to accompany his father Hazrat Haider Ali, the ruler of Mysore, to different military campaigns. In Addition, he also learnt different languages, mathematics and science. Tipu Sultan had a fascination for learning. His personal library consisted of more than 2,000 books in different languages. He was an extremely active man and worked hard for the welfare of his subjects. He took over the kingdom of Mysore after the death of his father in 1782, who died of a carbuncle in the midst of a campaign against the British. He continued fighting the British and defeated them in 1783.
Hazrat Tipu Sultan Shaheed (RA) was a farsighted person who could foresee East India Company's design to get entrenched in India. He therefore negotiated with the French for help and also sought assistance from the Amir of Afghanistan and the Sultan of Turkey. The British were scared of Tipu's growing strength and after their defeat in 1783 they formed an alliance with the Nizam of Hyderabadand Marhattas. The French, however, deserted Tipu after the signing of the Treaty of Versailles. The British availed the chance with the help of the Nizam and the Marathas, and started the third Anglo-Mysore war in 1790.

As long as the British fought alone, Tipu always defeated them. But he could not come over their diplomacy, conspiracy and intrigue. Thus he was defeated in his capital, Seringapatam, and was forced to sign a humiliating treaty on March 22, 1792. As a result he had to concede half of his kingdom and pay an indemnity of 33 million rupees to the British and their allies. The alliance between the adversaries was soon broken and in 1795 the British, after defeating the Nizam, once again turned their attention towards Mysore. After the treaty at Seringapatam, Tipu Sultan did not waste his time and made extensive preparations against the British. He had rebuilt his war machine in the shortest possible time with the help of the French. The British regarded it as a violation of the treaty. This led to the start of the fourth Anglo-Mysore war in 1798 with the help of the Nizam. The French were unable to provide the needed support to Tipu Sultan. Tipu Sultan retreated to his capital and continued fighting till he breathed his last in May 1799. Tipu Sultan is buried at a mausoleum that he himself had built, along with his father Haider Ali and his mother Fatima Begum.

Hazrat Tipu Sultan (RA) was a great patriot and like his father realized the danger of letting the British becoming stronger. Although much of the period of his rule was given to war with the Marhattas, the Nizam and the British, he made his state secure and peaceful with benevolent rule. He was an enlightened ruler who treated his non-Muslim subjects generously. He built a chain of excellent roads and constructed tanks and dams to promote agriculture. He introduced new industries, promoted trade and commerce on a large scale. Tipu prohibited the production and distribution of liquor and other intoxicants in Mysore. He also built and fortified numerous forts and many palaces, which were demolished by the British after his death. Bangalore Summer Palace still survives and is a remnant of his grand rule.

The Sword of Tippu Sultanand Engravings on it
History of the Sword On the verge of defeat, Tippu lay critically injured in the battlefield. But he still had his favorite sword with him. It is said a British soldier tried to snatch away the royal sword, but Tippu killed him with the same sword that he intended to possess!After the war, the sword was sent to London with other loots. After India's independence, it was brought back to India, only to be smuggled out as a collectible. The federal authorities seized it in 1988 and retained in India.
Tippu's accomplishments and popularity among his subjects and in the neighborhood states were eyesore, for imperialistic designs of the English. Hence they decided to finish him once for ever. Fourth Srirangapatanna war came very handy to them to physically liquidate Tippu on May 4th, 1799. A small monument has been erected where his dead body was found. Tippu had a good collection of weapons, but a particular sword was his favorite. He fought his last war with the same sword. When he was critically injured, a British intended to snatch sway the weapon, but Tippu killed him with the same sword which he intended to possess! The victorious General Harris sent Tippu's war-horse, the palanquin, and a howdah to the king of Coorg who sided with the British. After confiscating most of the Tippu's territory, the famous sword was sent to London. This was brought back after India's Independence (1947), but was about to be smuggled out of the country when it was intercepted, and was retained in the country. 

Tippu's Toy The mechanical 'Tipoo's Tiger' was captured at Srirangapattana in 1799 and was exhibited at the East India Company's headquarters in Leadenhall Street. The tiger roars and the British officer screams.Picture Courtesy : The East India Company
The most famous and beautiful artifact from Tippu Sultan's period is his summer place, the Daria Daulat. It beautifully depicts some of the heroic wars Tippu fought and also many social themes of the period.


Tippu built the "Gumbaz" at Srinagapattana in 1784 which is a square shaped mausoleum with ivory-inlaid doors and black marble pillars. Tippu is buried here by the side of his father Hyder Ali and mother Fatima Begum. Outside the tomb are the graves of his relatives and commanders. Nearby the "Mashit-e-Aqsa" mosque, with a pair of small minarets is located. A solar clock could be found outside this building.

Tippu built and fortified numerous forts, but unfortunately most of them are either destroyed or are in ruins because of poor maintenance. The Bangalore fort, located in the heart of the city has a temple of Sri Ganesh where devotees offer prayers regularly. Tippu also built many palaces which were demolished by the British after his death. However his Bangalore Summer Palace is a great tourist attractions. It is completely made of wooden structures with five well decorated and painted arches.

"Sword of Tippu Sultan" is the name of a novel by Bhagwan Gidwani based on his life. Based on it, a serial was telecast by Doordarshan (the state run television in India) which became both popular and controversial. On the 4th of May, 1999 Tippu's death bicentenary will be celebrated in India on a large scale. Though the historians of India are of different views about his role to dislodge the British from Indian soil, the common people have great admiration for his heroic deeds. It is very interesting to note that seventh generation descendants of Tippu Sultan have arrived at Srirangapattana, all the way from Calcutta to claim their ancestral properties!
The Daria Daulat Bagh is a national monument and can be visited by tourists (1999).
A trip from Mysore to Daria Daulat Bagh is steeped in history and takes one to the Srirangapatna, the erstwhile capital of Tippu Sultan till his death in 1799. The Daria Daulat Bagh, at about 14 km from Mysore houses a palace amidst a beautifully landscaped garden. Tippu sultan, known as the 'Tiger of Mysore' made this Summer Palace in 1784 and ruled Mysore for a short time from here after his father Hyder Ali died. The Daria Daulat Bagh palace is mostly made in teakwood in the Indo-Sarcenic style and mode of architecture.
The stately artifacts of Daria Daulat Bagh provides one of the most pleasant and historically enriching excursions from Mysore. This palace situated in the island of Srirangapatna amidst the Kaveri river was declared a National Monument in the year 1959. The Daria Daulat Bagh palace is now converted in a museum housing several of Tippu's memorabilia.
The rectangular spread of the whole palace is raised on a platform and open corridors with wooden pillars on all its four sides were perfect for the balmy breeze in summer. The is supported by numerous wooden pillars that are adorned with carvings. Beautifully carves wooden staircases and bays provide access to various halls and the ceilings are adorned with floral patterns.
The journey from Mysore to Daria Daulat Bagh is easily accessible by buses. Hired cabs and autos ply regularly between Mysore and Srirangapatna. The most awesome feature of the palace is the fresco painting that embellish the walls of the entire palace. The pillars, walls, canopies, arches and the corridors are all graced with frescoes in myriad hues. They depict scenes of warfare by Hyder Ali and Tippu Sultan, the Nizams of Hyderabad, the British and French soldiers. The fresco Durbar views of Tippu's contemporary rulers include the durbars of Hindu Queen of Chittorgarh, Balaji Rao II Peshwa, King of Tanjore, King of Varanasi, Madakari Nayaka and Magadi Kepegowda of Chitradurga and Krishnaraja Wodeyar II.
Masjid-E-Ala or Jamia Masjid :The mosque situated near the Bangalore Gate of the fort buit by Tippu Sultan It is said that he performed the first imamath himself. standing on a high basement with an open court in the open court in the front and a covered verandah with a spacious prayer hall with the "Mihrab" on the west. There is an inscription mentioning the ninety-nine names of Allah and another records the date of its construction by Tippu in 1787 A.D.
There are 2 minarets that are double storied and octagonal in shape with pigeonholes surmounted by domes that adds to the grandeur of the entire structure. There are 200 steps leading to the top of the minarets from where one can get a picturesque view of the Masjid.

Gumbaz : Mausoleum of Tippu Sultan, and his father Hyder Ali and mother Fathima Begam. This was built by Tippu Sultan between 1782-84, the Gumbaz, an imposing structure in the midst of the Lalbagh garden, stands on a high and wide platform with an open verandah of polished pillars all round.
The importance of Gumbaz lies in its well-shaped large dome, ivory inlaid doors, carved stone windows of fine workmanship and inscriptions. Tipu's favourite Tiger stripes cover the walls.Inside are the tombs of Haidar in the center, his wife and his son Tippu on either side. In the verandah and on the platform are the other tombs of Haidar's family members. The Gumbaz has magnificent ebony doors decorated with ivory which was presented by Lord Dalhousie. The interior walls are covered with lacquer Tiger stripes which is Tipu's favourite. A corridor affirmed by pillars of black amphibole walls Gumbaz.
Masjid-e-aksa a mosque is situated next to the Gumbaz. The Gumbaz is circulated with a beautiful garden and this gives it a beautiful and cool sight.
He was great lover of literature - ( his library was shifted to london after his shahadat ) .hazrat tippu sultan shaheed (ra) was a great learned personality . He had a wide collection of books in his library from all of the world. After his martyrdom the library was shifted to london. He thought of setting up a university at srirangapatna and even named it as jami-al-umur. He started the first newspaper, fauji akhbar. He was himself an author, and knew besides urdu, persian and arabic other language like kannada, marathi, english and french. More than 45 books were written during his times. His library consisted of 2000 manuscripts. He got a massive album prepared depiciting the pictures of all great Sufi saints both of India and abroad which proves that he was a great lover of Sufi Saints.

Place of Martyrdom :The place where Tippu Sultan's body was found.
How to reach :
Distance : Located 13 km from Mysore, 127kms towards South-West of Bangalore
Nearest Town : Srirangapatna
Nearest Railway Station : Srirangapatna
Nearest Airport : Mysore Airport.
Lalbagh Botanical Garden 4 kms from MG Road
Regarded as one of the most richly diverse Botanical Garden's in South Asia. Lalbagh in the Southern part of the city, was laid out by Haider Ali in 1740. Spread over 97-ha (240 acres) of Parkland, many of its tropical plants were brought here by Haider Ali's son Tipu Sultan. Later, John Cameron, the Garden's Superintendent in the 1870s, imported several more rare species from Kew Gardens in London. Cameron was also responsible for initiating work on Lalbagh's famous Glass House, modelled on London's Crystal Palace and Conceived as a venue for horticultural shows. Surrounded by champaka trees and pencil cedars, the Glass House.
Auliyas like Hazrat Kwaja Abdul Bhai Qaseer Chisty (RA) , Allama Dr. Sir Mohammed Iqbal ( Greatest Poet ) have visited the dargah Shareef of Hazrath Tippu Sultan (RA), both these Sufis have metioned the greatness of Hazrath Tippu Sultan Shaheed (RA) in their sufina kalam ( poems / manqibats ) and a numerous personalities have done ziarat of this great auliya and shaheed.

The sandal & urs e mubarak is grandly celebrated every year. This is such a great dargah shareef of a great shaheed or auliya where you will find numerous sandal mubarak ( sandal paste ) comes from different places on this day and people from different communties attend this great urs e shareef every year. The Main Sandal Begins at 2 pm afternoon from Masjid-e-Ala and the procession returns to the dargah shareef after asar namaz and sandal is applied before magrib namaz.

has played host to several visiting dignitaries. An Annual Flower show will be held here.
The Entrance to the Park is marked by an equestrian statue of Chamaraja Wodeyar of Mysore. Another popular attraction is the surreal Floral Clock, surrounded by Snow White and the Seven dwarfs. This was a gift from Hindustan Machine Tools, leading Indian Manufacturers of Watches
Also Refer :

Hazrat Hyder Ali (RA) and the Sufi Saints :-
Two know more about 2 Great Peer-o-Murshids of Hazrat Hyder Ali Bahadur (RA) Namely 1) Hazrath Syed Mohammed Aqheel Shah Qadhiri Al-Baghdadi Wal Hassani Wal Hussaini (Rahmathullah Allaih) and
2) Hazrat Atta ullah Shah Shuttari (Rahmatullah Allaih )
Kindly see the links given below :-
Hazrat Tippu Sultan (RA) was born when hazrat Hyder Ali (RA) duas in the dargah shareef of Tippu Mastaan Auliya (RA) in Arcot ( Tamil Nadu ) . So he kept the same name to Hazrat Tippu Sultan (RA) who is now the top most famous personality in the world.
Kindly note the Urs-e-Shareef of Hazrat Hyder Ali Bahadur (RA) is also celebrated every year in a grand manner at the dargah shareep Gumbaz in Srirangapatna.


Kolar Shahi Gumbaz Dargah :-

Tippu Sulthan Gombaz
Mazars of Hazrat Hyder Ali (RA) , Hazrata Fathima Bi (RA) and
Hazrat Tippu Sultan Shaheed (RA) at Gumbaz Dargah, Srirangapatnam
Opposite to Kolar Tower Clock you will find Dargah by name Shah Gumbaz Dargah in Kolar . Here you will find some sufi saints mazar and the mazars of the family members related to Hazrat Tippu Sultan Shahed in Kolar. Also find the chart showing the family members details.
Mazars of Family Members of Hazrat Tippu Sultan (RA) at Gumbaz
Dargah Kolar.

Mazars of Some Sufi Saints in Devanahalli related to Hazrat
Tipppu Sultan(RA), Bangalore District

Regarding Devanahalli :- Devahalli is the birth place of Hazrat Tippu Sultan (RA), here you will find famous forts in devanahalli and also a few mazars of sufi saints related to hazrat tippu sultan (RA). The
place is very interesting to visit. Also you will find Dargah of hazrat Malang Shah Valli (RA) in Devanahalli.
Birth Place

Manzarabad in Sakaleshpur in Hasan District of Karnataka :-
This place has a importance because you will find a great tree planted by Hazrat Tippu Sultan himself which has 99 leaves and different fruits. Even you find this tree in Manzarabad in Sakaleshpur.
Bade Peer Ka Chilla in Manzarabad : - Very famous chilla related to the king of auliyas Hazrat Syedina Shaik Abdul Qader Jillani (RA) is here and it has some secrets related to Hazrat Tippu Sultan (RA) which
cannot be mentioned in common.
Also you will find forts in Manzarabad build by Hazrat Tippu Sultan (RA)
Hazrat Tippu Sultan (RA) is such a king who is ruling on the hearts of people even today and set a great example to the humanity.

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